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Manual exposure calculators



Exposure Tables

Before there were Lightmeters there were exposure tables and calculators. The top 2 of them are from 1928 and 1937. The 1928 example includes a calculator. the bottom 2 are just 2 more variations.

{page 1 of 1937 photocalculator} {page 2 of 1937 photocalculator}





{front of 1938 photobook}
{pages of 1938 photobook} {calculator from 1938 photobook}






{page 1 of 1937 photocalculator} {page 2 of 1937 photocalculator}
{front of 1938 photobook} {pages of 1938 photobook}

Camera Pocket Table

Before there were Lightmeters there were exposure tables. This is the table that belongs in the slot in most of the rangefinder camera cases. The back was blank to write notes. There were also ones that were blank on both sides. In most cases they have been lost or the text has worn off..

{Cameracard}





Camera Exposure Calculators

Before there were Lightmeters there were cxposure calculators. This is an example of a more modern adjustable exposure calculator.


 


{Calculator} {Calculator}
{Calculator}




Extinction Lightmeters




OPTEK


So far I have found 4 variations of this light meter. They all come in a small blue cardboard box with different symbols on the box and the front of the meter. They all have OPTEK on the back, which I assume is the manufacturer and some have Leningrad. on the back..

I do not yet understand why 2 of the meters have the symbols of MMZ and Zagorsk. I also do not have any indication of their age but I assume that they are post war.

The manual is on line!

Basic instructions: Open the white cover, find the lowest number that you can read, set the dial to it, and read the settings off the dial for your film speed.

Comment: This shows the basic problem with extinction light meters, different people's eyes have different sensitivity to light and they may get different readings!


The Dials have inscriptions which from the outside to the center read:
Clear Weather/Snow
Cloudy Weather
Inside a Room
Sensitivity


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{Top of optek lightmeter} {Top of optek lightmeter} {Top of optek lightmeter}
{Top of optek lightmeter}
{Top of optek lightmeter}
{Top of optek lightmeter}

KIV2LM


I have just recieved this lightmeter. It is very different from the rest of the Soviet light meters. More to come!


Basic instructions:  Find the lowest number that you can read, set the dial to it, amd read the settings off the dial for your film speed.



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KIV lightmeter KIV lightmeter KIV lightmeter



TT extinction lightmeter


This is the only example of this type of Soviet light meter that I have ever seen.


Basic instructions: Look through the eyepiece, find the lowest number that you can read, set the dial to it, amd read the settings off the dial for your film speed.



 

Ext meter1 lightmeter





Electronic Lightmeters




FED Lightmeter


This is a round selenium lightmeter calibrated in GOST. This is by far the highest quality lightmeter that I have ever seen. It is every bit as well made as the camera. It was made for only a little while before the war and most do not work.It came in a brown leather case marked FED.


Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial read matchingfstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

WARNING: Selenium cells have a finate life always close the case when not in use to protect the cell.


{front of FED light meter} {resr of FED light meter } {top of FED light meter }




KIEV


This is probably the highest quality Soviet lightmeter that I have seen other than the FED lightmeter. It is far heavier than any of the other meters. It has a film speed range of gost 4 to gost 250. It has time settings from 1250 of a second to 8seconds. Aperatures from f1.4 to f45 are provided for. The passport is dated 1956. Although it is named Kiev there is no indication that it was made at the Arsenal.

Speculation: The top speed of 1250 would seem to indicate that this meter was made to be a companion to the Kiev rangefinder cameras. the brown version is very rare!
Of course, the question that arises is:. Was buying the camera and the seperate lightmeter any cheaper than just buying the camera with the lightmeter built in?

Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

WARNING: Selenium cells have a finate life always close the case when not in use to protect the cell.




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{Top of KIEV lightmeter} { Kiev lightmeter manual} { Kiev lightmeter manual}
{Top of brown KIEV lightmeter}



Leningrad


This is a selenium lightmeter calibrated in Gost. It allows the use of aperatures from 1 to 22 and shutter speeds from one onthousandth of a second to 60 seconds. It has one range and accepts film speeds from 11 gost to 700 gost. There is a film speed conversion table on the back of the meter. A white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. It is made of black bakelite and comes in a brown leather case.


Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial sread matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

WARNING: Selenium cells have a finate life always close the case when not in use to protect the cell.



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{Top of Leningrad lightmeter} {Rear Side of Leningrad lightmeter}




Leningrad-2


This is a selenium lightmeter calibrated in Gost. It allows the use of aperatures from 1.4 to 22 and shutter speeds from 1 one thousandth of a second to 15 seconds. It has one range and accepts film speeds from 4 gost to 320 gost and is also calibrated in DIN. It also has an auxillary scale. A white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. It is made of black bakelite and comes in a brown leather case.

There is a variation that has a film speed conversion table on the back of the meter and does not have DIN on the dial. This appears to be identical to the Moscow meter.


Basic operating instructions
Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

WARNING: Selenium cells have a finate life always close the case when not in use to protect the cell.



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{Leningrad 2 lightmeter} {Leningrad 2 lightmeter back}



Leningrad-3


As near as I can tell the odd numbered lightmeters do not exist.




 

Leningrad-4


This is a selenium lightmeter calibrated in Gost and Din or in ASA and Din on the export model. It allows the use of aperatures from 1.4 to 22 and shutter speeds from 1one thousandth of a second to 15 seconds. It has 2 ranges and accepts film speeds from 4 gost to 1000 gost, 6 to 30 DIN, 3 to 800 ASA. It also has a CINE scale and an auxillary scale. There was even a commerative lightmeter made for the Moscow Olympics. A white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. It is made of gray, black, brown or green plastic and comes in a black leather case.

Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

WARNING: Selenium cells have a finate life always close the case when not in use to protect the cell.




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{Leningrad 4 top} {green Leningrad 4 top} {brown Leningrad 4 top}
{black Leningrad 4 top} {black olympic Leningrad 4 top} {Leningrad 4 bottom}

Leningrad-5




 

As near as I can tell the odd numbered lightmeters do not exist..


Leningrad-6


This is a silicon cell lightmeter calibrated in Gost. It has a reflex viewfinder in the middle of the dial. It allows the use of aperatures from 1.4 to 45 and shutter speeds from one two thousandth of a second to 2 minutes. It has 2 ranges and accepts film speeds from 6 gost to 1400 gost, 2.8 to 33 DIN. It also has an auxillary scale.. A sliding white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. A 625A battery is required for operation. It is made of black plastic or a very rare varient has a gray top and comes in a black leather case.

Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial, while looking through the viewfinder read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.


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{Leningrad 6 lightmeter} {Leningrad 6 lightmeter} { Gray Leningrad 6 lightmeter}
{Leningrad 6 lightmeter}


Leningrad-7


This is a silicon cell lightmeter calibrated in Gost and Din or in ASA and Din on the export model. It allows the use of aperatures from 1.4 to 22 and shutter speeds from 1 two thousandth of a second to 30 seconds. One fo the unique things about this meter is that it has 3 ranges and accepts film speeds from 2.8 gost to 1400 gost, 6 to 33 DIN, 3 to 800 ASA. It also has a CINE scale and an auxillary scale. A white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. There was even a commerative lightmeter made for the Moscow Olympics. It is made of black plastic and comes in a black leather case.


Comment: This is the exception to the rule, an odd numbered light meter!


Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial, read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

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{Leningrad 7 lightmeter} {Leningrad 7 lightmeter} {Olympic Leningrad 7 lightmeter}



Leningrad-8


This is a silicon cell lightmeter calibrated in Gost. I appears to be a simplified Leningrad 7. It allows the use of apertures from 1.4 to 22 and shutter speeds from one four thousandth of a second to 2minutes. It has2 range and accepts film speeds from 3 gost to 3200 gost, 6 to 36 DIN. It also has an auxillary scale.. A white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. It is made of black plastic and comes in a black leather case.


Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial, read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.


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{Leningrad 8 lightmeter} {Leningrad 8 ightmeter }



Leningrad-10


This meter is very rare and for some reason people are willing to pay more for it than what an better Gossen or other brand would cost This is  a modified Leningrad 4..Many of them have defective contacts between the rotating head and the meter body. next to the meter are shown the 3 different covers for the metering head.


Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

 

{Leningrad 10 lightmeter} {Leningrad l0 lightmeter rear }



Moscow


The moscow appears to be a close copy or just a renamed Leningrad-2. This is a selenium lightmeter calibrated in Gost. It allows the use of aperatures from 1.4 to 22 and shutter speeds from 1 one thousandth of a second to 15 seconds. It has one range and accepts film speeds from 4 gost to 320 gost. There is a film speed conversion table on the back of the meter. A white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. It is made of black bakelite and comes in a brown leather case.

Basic operating instructions Set film speed, transfer meter reading to dial read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

WARNING: Selenium cells have a finate life always close the case when not in use to protect the cell.




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Moscow lightmeter Moscow lightmeter



Electronika


After close examination of this meter I believe that after a little modification it was renamed Sverdlosk 2.


Basic operating instructions Set film speed , while looking through the window turn the dial until the led just lights. Read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

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Elektronika lightmeter Elektronika lightmeter



Sverdlovsk


As near as I can tell the odd numbered lightmeters do not exist.




 

Sverdlovsk-2


This is a silicon cell lightmeter calibrated in DIN andGost. It has a reflex viewfinder in the upper left cornerl.It allows the use of aperatures from 0.7 to 64 and shutter speeds from one four thousandth of a second to 30 minutes. It has 2 ranges and accepts film speeds from 1 gost to 2000 gost, 3 to 36 DIN. It also has an auxillary scale and tables on the back... A sliding white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. The original Soviet battery for this meter is no longer available but it can easily be modified to use three 625A batteries for operation.  It is made of gray plastic and comes in a black leather case..

There is an extremely rare commerative meter celebrating the 30 th anniversary of the end of World War II.

Basic operating instructions Set film speed , while looking through the window turn the dial until the led just lights. Read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.


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Sverdlosk 2 lightmeter Sverdlosk 2 lightmeter Sverdlosk 2 lightmeter



Sverdlovsk-3


As near as I can tell the odd numbered lightmeters do not exist.




 

Sverdlovsk-4


This is a silicon cell lightmeter calibrated in Gost/ASA. It has a reflex viewfinder in theupper corner, .It allows the use of aperatures from 1.4 to 45 and shutter speeds from one two thousandth of a second to 2 hours. It has 2 ranges and accepts film speeds from 3 gost to 3200 gost, 3 to 36 DIN. It also has an auxillary scale and tables on the back... A sliding white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter. The original Soviet battery for this meter is no longer available but it can easily be modified to use three 625A batteries for operation. A battery pack is also provided that uses 3 AA batteries. The meter is used by looking through a little window and turning a wheel until a Led comes on. It is made of black plastic and comes in a black leather case.


Basic operating instructions Set film speed , while looking through the window turn the dial until the led just lights. Read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

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Sverdlosk 4 lightmeter Sverdlosk 4 lightmeter kit Sverdlosk 4 lightmeter kit
Sverdlosk 4 lightmeter kit
Sverdlosk 4 lightmeter kit
Sverdlosk 4 lightmeter kit

Sverdlovsk-5


As near as I can tell the odd numbered lightmeters do not exist.




 

Sverdlovsk-6


This is a silicon cell lightmeter calibrated in Gost/ASA..It allows the use of aperatures from 1.4 to 22 and shutter speeds from one two thousandth of a second to 60 secondss. It has 2 ranges and accepts film speeds from 3 gost to 6400 gost, 6 to 39DIN. It also has an auxillary scale and tables on the back... A sliding white filter is provided for use as an incident light meter.The original Soviet battery for this meter is no longer available but it can easily be modified to use three 625A batteries for operation.

Basic operating instructions Set film speed ,  turn the dial until the led just lights. Read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.


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Sverdlosk 6 lightmeter Sverdlosk 6 lightmeter



Rapri E-201


This is a spot meter only . It uses 6 PX625A batteries.


Basic operating instructions Set film speed , while looking through the window turn the dial until the led just lights. Read matching fstop and shutter speeds and transfer them to the camera.

SPECIFICATIONS :


Range – 0.5-5000 cd/m2
Angle of measurement - < 1 degree
Photosensitivity ISO,ASA – 1.6-800
Photosensitivity DIN – 3-30
Apertures – 1-30 Shutter speeds, sec – 1/1000-30, min – 1-16
Dimensions, mm - 140 x 95 x 45
Weight,kg – 0.2



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Rapri A201 lightmeter Rapri A201 lightmeter




© Nathan Dayton 2000